Russians Vulnerable to Ischemia and Stroke
VlassovGlobal, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition
However, the authors are careful not to sound too optimistic.
First, they stress the fact that the worldwide burden of disease is still very high, and while significant progress has been achieved globally since 2005 in controlling infections such as HIV and malaria – both of which contribute substantially to the burden of disease – they are still prevalent in many countries.
Cardiac, Vascular and Spinal Diseases Top the List in Russia
Effective control of infections accounts for the major difference in the burden of disease between developing and developed countries, according to the epidemiological transition theory proposed by Abdel Omran in 1971. Often quoted by researchers, this theory postulates that epidemiological transition occurs when a country transitions from developing to developed nation status – a process accompanied by a redistribution in the primary causes of death: from infections to chronic and age-related degenerative diseases (which include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, spinal pathologies, etc.) Epidemiological transitions are associated with better health care, nutrition, living standards, and other factors.
In Russia, a redistribution in the primary causes of death was first observed in the middle of the last century, but the overall burden of disease remains high even today. According to the paper's authors and many Russian demographers, the situation with chronic diseases – from cardiovascular conditions to cancer – has not improved significantly. The most common health problems in Russia listed in The Lancet include heart conditions, stroke, spinal pathology, lung cancer, depression, alcoholism, and injuries caused by road accidents; a similar situation is observed in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Moldova and some other former Soviet republics.
Worldwide, the leading causes of morbidity in 2013, measured by disability-adjusted life years (DALY), included ischemic heart disease, respiratory conditions, cerebrovascular accidents (including stroke), pain in the neck and lower back, and injuries from traffic accidents.
Neurological Problems Affect Women
Meanwhile, a subjective assessment of one's health, included in indicators such as HALE, has improved in Russia in recent years, although estimates of the actual ‘gain in healthy years’ vary.
Life Expectancy Could Be Even Better