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Regular version of the site


Analysis of education reforms in Latvia, Estonia, and Russia: Common histories, divergent paths

Educational reforms is often aimed at building social cohesion or aligning one part of an education system with another. School curriculum reform is one possible way for disseminating what society would like to be taught in every school in a country. However, merely the introduction of reforms is not enough if they would not come true in schools’ day-to-day process. On a country level, the data on what is taking place in schools are usually difficult to relate with what was proposed by the reforms, especially with attainment. Using a natural experiment situation, this chapter describes the process of curriculum reform in Russian-medium schools in Latvia and Estonia. The research question focuses on whether those curriculum reforms were successful from the perspective of schools interiorization of new curriculum and PISA performance improvement. Using the three-layered curriculum (intended, implemented, and attained curriculum) approach, this study analyses how the intentions from the laws and other reform-related documents were implemented in everyday school practice and are reflected in attained educational results. For addressing this issue, a series of in-depth interviews in Russian-medium schools, in conjunction with the PISA 2003-2012 trends analysis, were conducted. The results showed that intended and attained curricula have become closer in both countries. Schools actively implement proposed teaching, and PISA performance has been constantly increasing, showing that the attained curriculum is approaching what it is intended to be, though this process is different in the two countries.

In bk.: Comparing Post-Socialist Transformations: Education in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union. Symposium Publishers, 2018.
May 21, 2017

Automated Word Sense Frequency Estimation for Russian Nouns

According to G. K. Zipf’s observation, there is a strong correlation between word frequency and polysemy. Yet word sense frequency distribution is a neglected area in computational linguistics. Furthermore, the study of sense frequency has theoretical interest and practical applications for lexicography and word sense disambiguation. Although WordNet and SemCor contain some information about sense frequency in English, it is not enough for either practical or research purposes. This information is even lacking in Russian. To fill this lacuna, we developed and tested an automated system based on semantic vectors, which deals with the problem of sense frequency for Russian nouns. The model is first trained unsupervised on large corpora and then supplied with contexts and collocations from the Active Dictionary of Russian. The dictionary examples are used either for supervised post-training or for automatic labeling of clusters that are learned unsupervised. This allows us to reach a frequency estimation error of 11-15 percent on different corpora without additional labeled data. Word sense frequency distributions for 440 nouns are available online.



Лопухина А. А., Лопухин К. А., Носырев Г. В.
In bk.: Quantitative approaches to the Russian language. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2018.
Oct 11, 2016

Can the leniency program deter collusion in young competition jurisdiction of transition economy?

The paper fills the gaps between the scale of application of leniency program (LP) almost in every competition jurisdiction in the world and the concentration of the effect assessment on developed countries only. An empirical assessment of LP introduced in Russia in 2007, under imperfect antimonopoly provisions on collusions showed the effects of the changes in the rules of antitrust enforcement on the behaviour of market participants. I test the hypotheses of the impact of LP enforcement on the characteristics of collusion (types of agreement, duration and number of participants). I show that the first version of LP in Russia (2007) made antitrust enforcement less effective and accordingly reduced collusion detection. However, the reform of LP in 2009 provided the positive results. Even in very imperfect institutional environment, the improved version of LP (2009) has impact on collusion participants: less stable collusions are destroyed and potential collusions do not appear.

Yusupova G. F.
International Journal of Economic Policy in Emerging Economies. 2018.
Jan 27, 2017

Coup D’etat in the Panopticon: Social Networking in Education

Contemporary compulsory schooling emerged in the nineteenth century for the needs of an industrial age. Compulsory schooling has always relied on the Panoptic schema described by Michel Foucault. In recent decades, the development of surveillance technologies has made Panoptic schemas in schools even stronger. Information technology and the transition to an information society has significantly undermined schools' power structures. Teachers no longer possess a monopoly on knowledge. Students have learned to escape the teachers' gaze and can lead virtual lives through their own smartphones inside and outside formal educational settings. One form of modern peer-to-peer interaction takes place on social networking websites that give users the option to be 'hidden', 'passive' or 'inactive' if they wish. To examine the influence of social networking on education we rely on the Foucault's Panopticon theory. Whilst the traditional Panoptic regime may be crumbling, the social network phenomenon can transform modern learning environments for productive educational engagement. Foucault's framework does not take into account the social networks phenomenon. Therefore, empirical evidence is required to articulate the nuances of the modern-day Panopticon. In this chapter we use interviews with teachers to illustrate the reflection of Panoptic logics and practices onto the social networks in classrooms. We explore the possibility for developing dialogically based and student-led pedagogies through social networking websites. 'I do not know how I should communicate with students online, when they write me a private message and call me by my first name. Should I play by their rules on this space? Or, do I need to use the constructs from school?

Koroleva D., Simpson A.
In bk.: Transforming Education. Springer Singapore, 2018. P. 213-225.
Sep 11, 2017

Electoral Integrity and Political Regimes Actors, Strategies and Consequences

Following a normative approach that suggests international norms and standards for elections apply universally, regardless of regime type or cultural context, this book examines the challenges to electoral integrity, the actors involved, and the consequences of electoral malpractice and poor electoral integrity that vary by regime type. It bridges the literature on electoral integrity with that of political regime types.

Looking specifically at questions of innovation and learning, corruption and organized crime, political efficacy and turnout, the threat of electoral violence and protest, and finally, the possibility of regime change, it seeks to expand the scholarly understanding of electoral integrity and diverse regimes by exploring the diversity of challenges to electoral integrity, the diversity of actors that are involved and the diversity of consequences that can result.

This text will be of key interest to scholars, students and practitioners of electoral studies, and more broadly of relevance to comparative politics, international development, political behaviour and democracy, democratization, and autocracy.

Zavadskaya M., Garnett H. A.
L.: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2018.
Sep 6, 2017

Estimation of procurement costs incurred by public customers: a case study of a Russian region

Public procurement procedures prescribed by legislation not only enhance transparency and competition but also entail certain transaction costs for both customers and suppliers. These costs are important to the efficiency of the procurement system. However, very few previous studies have focused on estimating procurement costs. This paper proposes a methodology for public procurement cost evaluation. We show how procurement costs can be calculated using a formalized survey of public customers. This methodology was tested with a representative group of public customers operating in one region of the Russian Federation. We formulate the policy implications of our study as they relate to the improvement of public procurement regulations and argue that this methodological approach can be applied in other developing and transitioning economies.

Yakovlev A., Olga Balaeva, Tkachenko A.
Journal of Public Procurement. 2018. Vol. 2. No. 18.
Jan 19, 2017

From Hidden Othering to Open Rivalry: Negotiating the EU-Russia Role Structure through the Visa Dialogue

Relations between the EU and Russia have been traditionally and predominantly studied from a one-sided power perspective, in which interests and capabilities are taken for granted.

This book presents a new approach to EU-Russia relations by focusing on the role of images and perceptions, which can be major obstacles to the enhancement of relations between both actors. By looking at how these images feature on both sides (EU and Russia), on different levels (bilateral, regional, multilateral) and in different policy fields (energy, minorities, regional integration, multilateral institutions), the book seeks to reintroduce a degree of sophistication into EU-Russia studies and provide a more complete overview of different dimensions of EU-Russia relations than any book has done to date. Taking social constructivist and transnational approaches, interests and power are not seen as objectively given, but as socially mediated and imbued by identities.

This text will be of key interest to scholars, students and practitioners of European Foreign Policy, Eastern Partnership, Russian Foreign Policy and more broadly to European and EU Politics/Studies, Russia studies, and International Relations.

In bk.: EU-Russia Relations in Crisis: Understanding Diverging Perceptions. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2018. Ch. 6.
Oct 31, 2016

Indicators of Information and Communication Technology

Information and communication technology (ICT) has become a major driver of changes in economic, social, public and private life, leading to emergence of the Information Society and Digital Economy. Identification of key trends and analysis of transformation processes can only be made on the basis of reliable statistical data. Development of relevant international statistics play a leading role here hence, via establishing and updating relevant standards, it allows to measure development of the Information Society in a global scale, and benchmark positions of individual countries in the worldwide economic environment. ICT indicators are based on general (definitions and classifications, similar data collection methodologies) and specialised statistical standards, whereas harmonised methodology provides highly compatible indicators for different countries. The objective of this paper is to present a systemic overview of internationally accepted definitions of main ICT indicators based on accumulated methodological standards and practical experience.

In bk.: Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Fourth Edition (10 Volumes). Hershey: IGI Global, 2018.
Jul 7, 2017

Limit theorems for queueing systems with different service disciplines

In this paper a multi-server queueing system with regenerative input flow and independent service times with finite means is studied. We consider queueing systems with various disciplines of the service performance: systems with a common queue and systems with individual queues in front of the servers. In the second case an arrived customer chooses one of the servers in accordance to a certain rule and stays in the chosen queue up to the moment of its departure from the system. We de fine some classes of disciplines and analyze the asymptotical behaviour of a multi-server queueing system in a heavy-trac situation (trac rate is more or equals 1). The main result of this work is limit theorems concerning the weak convergence of scaled processes of waiting time and queue length to the process of the Brownian motion for the case when the traffic rate is more then one and its absolute value for the case when the traffic rate equals one.

Methodology and Computing in Applied Probability. 2018.
Sep 5, 2017

Michael Glycas as a Chronicle Writer

Michael Glycas wrote in different genres; his most significant work is the Universal Chronicle. It has no value as a historical source, since it is a gigantic compilation, and the great majority o its sources has survived. Yet, it excels among other chronicles by both its structure and its content. Whereas the second, historical part is extremely superficial and piecemeal, the first part is a huge and independent Hexaemeron containing answers to hundreds of questions about the configuration of the Universe. The number of sources used by Glycas is strikingly high, he easily combines theological treatises with ancient paradoxographic and scientific texts, Aristotle is quoted side by side with Physiologus. In both parts of his Chronicle, the author manages to extract from his sources what he needs most: entertaining stories, curious data and moral admonition. We know from Glycas’ theological letters that he was highly educated but his Chronicle was aimed at the “broad audience”.

Zharkaya V. Y.
In bk.: Brill's Companion to Byzantine Chronicles. Brill Publishing House, 2018.
Jun 8, 2015

Poetic Translation and the Canon: the Case of Russian Auden

The paper outlines the history of poetic translations of W.H. Auden into   Russian, from those included in M. Gutner’s Anthology Of The New English Poetry    (1937) to anthology and magazine publications of the 1970s, to two monographic    collections of verse printed within a short interval of time at the turn of the 21st   (Auden, W.H. Collection of Verse, trans. V. Toporov, 1997; Auden, W.H. Labyrinth,    trans. V.P.Shestakov, 2003) and discusses them in the context of the canon. The    issue of writing poetic translation into the canon is addressed in both historical and    translation study perspectives along the lines introduced by Andre Lefevere in his works    Translation, Rewriting, and the Manipulation of Literary Fame (1992) and Translating    Literature: Practice and Theory in a Comparative Literature Framework (1992).    Historically, the key publications are considered in the international context of    both Auden and canon-formation. In this respect the 1930s deserve a special attention    as the time of constructing of the canon of modern poetry, i.e. time of anthologies, both    internationally (Faber Book of Modern Verse (1936) and Oxford Book of Modern Verse,    1892-1935 (1936)) and in the USSR (apart from Gutner’s anthology the paper discusses    the approach to forming the canon of the International Literature magazine and their    correspondence with Auden concerning translation of his verse in 1938). The popularity    of the British-American poet in the late Soviet time and the first post-Soviet decade is    also considered against the canon-forming processes in the West and the concept of    world literature.

In bk.: Translation in Russian Contexts: Culture, Politics, Identity. Routledge, 2018. P. 292-305.
Mar 18, 2015

Pseudo-Riemannian foliations and their graphs

We prove that a foliation (M;F) of codimension q on a ndimensional
pseudo-Riemannian manifold is pseudo-Riemannian if and only
if any geodesic that is orthogonal at one point to a leaf is orthogonal to every
leaf it intersects.
We show that on the graph G = G(F) of a pseudo-Riemannian foliation
there exists a unique pseudo-Riemannian metric such that canonical projections
are pseudo-Riemannian submersions and the fibers of different projections
are orthogonal at common points. Relatively this metric the induced foliation
(G;F) on the graph is pseudo-Riemannian and the structure of the leaves
of (G;F) is described. Special attention is given to the structure of graphs of
transversally (geodesically) complete pseudo-Riemannian foliations which are
totally geodesic pseudo-Riemannian ones.

N. I. Zhukova, A. Yu. Dolgonosova.
Lobachevskii Journal of Mathematics. 2018. No. 1.
Mar 23, 2017