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Публикации

Building Communication Bridges to Mitigate Language and Culture Barriers

Every university which exists in an environment where English is not the first language is going to encounter obstacles in communicating with its international students. While developing towards a polylingual solution might seem preferable, in reality universities choose a less costly decision — English in addition to the local language(s), since it is the de facto lingua franca of international education.

Nonetheless, specific challenges and ways to address international students greatly depend on how widespread the knowledge of English is in the country and university environment. For example, the Netherlands and Sweden have many natural opportunities for universities to recruit people who will not experience the language barrier with international students. However, many other countries, including Russia, have very different starting conditions: according to the 2010 census, only 5.3% of the Russian population indicated knowledge of English. Of course it calls for deliberate extra efforts aimed at developing information channels and English interface of university services.

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Higher Education in Russia and Beyond. 2017. No. 2(12). P. 21-22.
5 июня 2017

Capital Cities: Varieties and Patterns of Development and Relocation

The issue of capital city relocation is a topic of debate for more than forty countries around the world. In this first book to discuss the issue, Vadim Rossman offers an in-depth analysis of the subject, highlighting the global trends and the key factors that motivate different countries to consider such projects, analyzing the outcomes and drawing lessons from recent capital city transfers worldwide for governments and policy-makers.

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L.; NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis, 2017.

Centralisation and Decentralisation of International Student Support: Getting the Best of Both Worlds

Nowadays universities do not need to be convinced that their student support services should take into account international students as well. However, a specific configuration of the support system depends on both external and internal factors. A lot is shaped by the context: national regulation, predominant language(s) in the country, changing demands of the job market; but no less important is the university’s strategy, i.e., the decisions on how to develop while taking the context into account.

Language barrier is the first and major hindrance in accessing the system of student support. The second obstacle is the lack of flexible interface for every university service, which would take into account the diversity of student body. In such circumstances, and when the number of international students is relatively small, it is often easier and more effective to start with a centralised approach, as it allows to ensure adequate and timely support of predictable quality to incoming international students.

However, despite the impression that this way a student can resolve all the issues in one place, it is a quasi-onestop service because the central office is not a provider of university services but a mediator between students and relevant units. Consequently, it becomes the bottleneck which slows processes down when the number of international students grows. Moreover, a separate track of support creates an isolated bubble for international students, providing fewer possibilities for intercultural experience and, thus, increasing the risk of creating a split university.

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Higher Education in Russia and Beyond. 2017. No. 2(12). P. 18-19.
5 июня 2017

Challenged harmony. Byzantine dispute over the form of the universe

Throughout the whole Byzantine era we witness the coexistence of the spherical conception of the universe which has its’ roots in ancient science and the pattern of tabernacle based on the Holy Writ. Only once in 6th century the opposite views became a subject for a dispute, but even then rather as a part of a broader theological controversy. Since that time the two conceptions survived in different cultural milieus and thence had no point of intersection. Only in 12 century Michael Glycas writing his chronicle in a simple language approaches the issue. Proving that the universe has a shape of a sphere he tries to make scholar knowledge available to a general public. By doing so he even dares to come into contradiction with John Chrysostom himself.

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Micrologus. Nature, Sciences and Medieval Societies. 2017. Vol. 25. P. 37-46.

Changing Attitudes: Reconsidering the Role of Turkish in the Community of Pontic Greeks in Cyprus

The present paper examines the linguistic behaviour of the first wave of Pontic Greek immigrants to Cyprus based on their internalized language attitudes and dominant language ideologies. Since the time of its settlement in Cyprus in the early/mid 1990s, the predominantly Turkish-speaking community of Pontic Greeks has experienced a rapid linguistic and cultural transformation. This occurred primarily due to the local population’s (i.e. Greek-Cypriots’) reluctance to recognize the Turkish-speaking Pontic Greeks as belonging to the Greek linguistic and cultural ‘world’ in light of the former’s historical and socio-political tensions with the Turkish-Cypriot minority. More specifically, I will analyse the factors that have contributed to this rapid language shift and show what (non-) linguistic means are employed by the members of the Pontic Greek community to index their ethnic identity and belonging.

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Zoumpalidis D., Zubalov D.
Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford. 2017. Vol. 9. No. 1. P. 25-42.

Chiefdoms: Yesterday and Today

What many anthropologists regard as the major step in political development occurred when, for the first time in history, previously autonomous villages gave up their individual sovereignties and were brought together into a multi-village political unit--the chiefdom. Though long neglected as a major stage in history, recent years have seen the chiefdom come in for increased attention. As its importance has been more fully recognized, it has become the object of serious scholarly analysis and interpretation. In this volume specialists in political evolution draw on data from ethnography, archaeology, and history and apply fresh insights to enhance the study of the chiefdom. The papers present penetrating analyses of many aspects of the chiefdom, from how this form of political organization first arose to the role it played in giving rise to the next major stage in the development of human society - the state.

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Carneiro R. L., Grinin L. E., Korotayev A. et al.
NY: Eliot Werner Publications Incorporated, 2017.

Childbearing among first- and second generation Russians in Estonia against the background of the sending and host countries

Background: An expanding literature documents the childbearing patterns of migrants and their descendants in contemporary Europe. The existing evidence pertains mainly to the northern, western, and southern regions of the continent, while less is known about the fertility of migrants who have moved between the countries of Eastern Europe.

Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the fertility patterns of first- and second-generation Russians in Estonia, relative to the sending and host populations.

Methods: The study draws on the Estonian and Russian Generations and Gender Surveys. Proportional hazards models are estimated for the transitions to first, second, and third births.

Results: Russian migrants in Estonia exhibit greater similarity to the sending population, with a lower propensity for having a second and third birth than the host population. This pattern extends to the descendants of migrants. However, mixed Estonian-Russian parentage, enrolment in Estonian-language schools, and residence among the host population are associated with the convergence of Russians’ childbearing behaviour with the host-country patterns. The findings support the cultural maintenance and adaptation perspectives; selectivity was found to be less important.

Contribution: The study focuses on a previously under-researched context and underscores the importance of contextual factors in shaping migrants’ fertility patterns. It raises the possibility that, depending on the childbearing trends and levels among the sending and receiving populations, large-scale migration may reduce rather than increase aggregate fertility in the host country. With the advancement of the fertility transition in sending countries, this situation may become more common in Europe in the future.

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Puur A., Rahnu L., Abuladze L. et al.
Demographic Research. 2017. Vol. 36. P. 1209-1254.

Children out of parental care in Russia: what we can learn from the statistics

В статье представлен подробный анализ данных официальной статистики сиротства в России. Используя широкий набор источников данных, авторы показывают, что, несмотря на устойчивое снижение на протяжении последних пятнадцати лет, первичный риск сиротства в России остается высоким. Так, число выявленных в течение 2015 г. детей-сирот и детей, оставшихся без попечения родителей, превышало 2% от общей численности детей в возрасте до 18 лет. Анализ статистических данных свидетельствуют о происходящем с начала 2000-х гг. процессе деинституциализации сиротства: если в 2000 г. доля детей, проживающих в институциональных учреждениях, в общем числе детей-сирот и детей, оставшихся без попечения родителей, достигала 27%, то к 2014 г. этот показатель снизился до 11,5%. Авторы связывают это как с положительной экономической динамикой 2000-х гг., так и развитием системы устройства. В то же время, в статье показано, что действующая система выявления и устройства детей-сирот и детей, оставшихся без попечения родителей, воспроизводит ряд серьезных проблем. Во-первых, несмотря на то, что более 80% ежегодно выявляемых детей имеют одного или обоих родителей, задача по восстановлению кровных семей все еще не рассматривается в качестве приоритетной в системе устройства: по данным официальной статистики только один из десяти детей возвращается к родителям после изъятия из семьи. Во-вторых, отдельные группы детей по-прежнему относительно редко попадают на семейные формы устройства. Так, до настоящего времени высокие риски длительной институциализации наблюдаются в отношении детей старших возрастов, а также в отношении детей с физической или психической инвалидностью. В-третьих, общая распространенность случаев повторного сиротства, то есть возвратов детей в институциальные учреждения из семей, равно как и динамика числа таких случаев в последние годы указывают на важность профессиональной подготовки замещающих родителей и на необходимость постоянного сопровождения замещающих семей, пока что не получивших должного развития в России. В заключительной части статьи авторы обсуждают применимость полученных в ходе анализа статистики результатов для корректировки политики, адресованной детям-сиротам и детям, оставшимся без попечения родителей.

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Journal of Social Policy Studies. 2017. Vol. 15. No. 3. P. 367-382.

Clustering and maximum likelihood search for efficient statistical classification with medium-sized databases

This paper addresses the problem of insufficient performance of statistical classification with the medium-sized database (thousands of classes). Each object is represented as a sequence of independent segments. Each segment is defined as a random sample of independent features with the distribution of multivariate exponential type. To increase the speed of the optimal Kullback-Leibler minimum information discrimination principle, we apply the clustering of the training set and an approximate nearest neighbor search of the input object in a set of cluster medoids. By using the asymptotic properties of the Kullback-Leibler divergence, we propose the maximal likelihood search procedure. In this method the medoid to check is selected from the cluster with the maximal joint density (likelihood) of the distances to the previously checked medoids. Experimental results in image recognition with artificially generated dataset and Essex facial database prove that the proposed approach is much more effective, than an exhaustive search and the known approximate nearest neighbor methods from FLANN and NonMetricSpace libraries.

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Optimization Letters. 2017. Vol. 11. No. 2. P. 329-341.
10 сентября 2015

Clusters as Innovative Melting Pots?—the Meaning of Cluster Management for Knowledge Diffusion in Clusters

There is broad consensus that economic development and society welfare correlate with the effectiveness and efficiency of countries’ science, technology, and innovation infrastructure. There is a broad range of actors active in all fields with diverging ambitions, missions, and aims striving for scientific, technological, and innovation excellence. Still one actor alone faces severe challenges in the respective global competition which is why increasingly clusters are formed and quipped with professional management. This raises the question if knowledge diffusion channels function more effective and efficient in organically grown self-organized channels or if targeted public policy intervention is needed to enhance these channels by means of attached cluster management. The article discusses the major conceptual features of cluster management and spillovers and the resulting implications for cluster management activities.

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Meissner D., Günther J.
Journal of the Knowledge Economy. 2017. Vol. 8. No. 2. P. 499-512.
4 октября 2017

Collective Learning and Regime Dynamics under Uncertainty: Labour Reform and the Way to Autocracy in Russia

The article questions the structural approach to autocratic transition that sees government as knowingly and purposely building autocracy, and contributes to the tradition emphasizing the plurality of possible regime developments and the role of contingency therein, by providing a more systematic treatment of such contingency. We offer a path-dependent theory of political change and use insights from cognitive institutionalism to show how ad hoc policy reform practices become accepted as a trusted way of interaction by political actors and how they “learn” their way into autocracy. This intuition is substantiated with a case-study of the labour reform in Putin’s Russia. The early 2000s marked a surge in uncertainty in Russian politics caused by the succession crisis and the profound political turnover it triggered. This uncertainty could have resolved in a number of ways, each leading to a different political development. We trace the actual way out of this uncertainty and show that the major factor to condition further regime trajectory was the way social reforms were conducted. The course of these reforms determined the ruling coalition and the institutions that ensure credible commitment within its ranks (the dominant party), and contributed to crowding out the political market and opposition decay.

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Democratization. 2017. Vol. 24. No. 3. P. 481-497.
2 сентября 2016

Collective Organizational Efficacy and Collective Work Engagement in Internationalized Companies: The Moderating Role of Specific Collective Organizational Efficacy

The study examines whether the positive relationship, observed in previous study, between self-efficacy and work engagement is observed also at the collective level, between collective organizational efficacy and collective work engagement. Moreover, the moderating role of specific collective organizational efficacy is analysed. A questionnaire, administered to 358 employees from 13 Italian companies of the Food & Beverage sector, included three scales: 1) general collective organizational efficacy scale (Bohn, 2010); 2) specific collective organizational efficacy in internationalization, developed for the present study, and 3) collective work engagement scale. Results showed a positive relationship between collective organizational efficacy and collective work engagement. Specific collective organizational efficacy moderates the effect only for the vigor and absorption dimensions of collective work engagement, suggesting that employees are engaged in their job when they perceive that the organization is very effective, or ineffective, in general and in a specific task. The practical implications of the results of the present study are discussed. 

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Kravchenko E., Zappalà S.
Psicologia Sociale. 2017. No. 1. P. 57-75.