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How to Prevent Lying and Drinking in Teens, According to Research

Adolescents who have a greater tendency to lie to their parents are also more likely to start using alcohol at an earlier age, while excessive parental supervision may aggravate rather than solve the problem. Both honesty and a lower risk of developing a drinking habit are usually the result of a trusting relationship between a teenager and parents, according to a joint study by New York University and HSE researchers, published at Journal of Adolescence.

Hedonism versus Harmony: Wrong Image of Happiness in Commercials

Commercials could be far more effective by addressing consumers’ attitudes and values.

How to Improve Corporate Governance in State-owned Companies

Russian companies with state participation lack transparency.

May 17

Researchers to Predict Cognitive Dissonance according to Brain Activity

A new study by HSE researchers has uncovered a new brain mechanism that generates cognitive dissonance – a mental discomfort experienced by a person who simultaneously holds two or more contradictory beliefs or values, or experiences difficulties in making decisions. The results of the study have been published in the paper ‘Open Access Neural Mechanisms of Cognitive Dissonance (Revised): an EEG Study’in The Journal of Neuroscience.

Publications

Geopolitics and tourism in the Arctic: the case of the national park ‘Russian Arctic’

The role of the Arctic on the global geopolitical arena rose during the Cold War. With time, political rivalry gave the way to regional cooperation, but the Arctic remains a highly politicized area. In the twenty-first century, Arctic states waded into the ‘Arctic Rush’ for natural resources and political supremacy. Their geopolitical interests affect significantly the development of Arctic tourism. At present, the Arctic is in the foreground of Russian political agenda. It resulted in the rising interest in Arctic tourism as a means of promoting strategic and economic value of the Arctic. Current paper focuses on the case of the National Park ‘Russian Arctic’. Based on expert interviews, the results of the study reveal how political circumstances influence Arctic tourism development. Four aspects related to political context were identified: increased militarization, access restrictions, political tensions between Russia and global community, and interest of non-Arctic players in the region’s potential.

… 
Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events. 2017.
May 24, 2017

The cul-de-sac of foreign industrial investments to Russia

The aim of this article is to determine the rationale for the ‘irrational’ investment behaviour of multinational corporations (MNCs) in Russia. During the on-going recession in a number of major sectors, MNCs have undertaken only a very limited number of divestments and, instead, have commissioned a record number of new manufacturing facilities (by opening new plants and expanding the capacities of existing plants). To explain this phenomenon, we first provide an overview of existing theoretical and empirical studies on investments in difficult locations and divestments of foreign subsidiaries, and indicate the major weaknesses of the prevailing approaches and underlying assumptions of such studies. Next, we present a detailed picture of both industrial investments and divestments in Russia from January 2015 to March 2017. Finally, we indicate how a combination of systemic and contingent factors (pressure from the host country’s government, subsidiaries’ orientation towards the host country’s markets, and the absence of potential local and international acquirers for existing Russian manufacturing facilities of Western MNCs) has created ‘cul-de-sac’ conditions for foreign-owned industrial assets in Russia.

… 
Post-Communist Economies. 2017.
May 24, 2017

Decomposition of regional convergence in population aging across Europe

In the face of rapidly aging population, decreasing regional inequalities in population composition is one of the regional cohesion goals of the European Union. To our knowledge, no explicit quantification of the changes in regional population aging differentiation exist. We investigate how regional differences in population aging developed over the last decade and how they are likely to evolve in the coming three decades, and we examine how demographic components of population growth contribute to the process. We use the beta-convergence approach to test whether regions are moving towards a common level of population aging. The change in population composition is decomposed into the separate effects of changes in the size of the non-working-age population and of the working-age population. The latter changes are further decomposed into the effects of cohort turnover, migration at working ages, and mortality at working ages. European Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS)-2 regions experienced notable convergence in population aging during the period 2003–2012 and are expected to experience further convergence in the coming three decades. Convergence in aging mainly depends on changes in the population structure of East-European regions. Cohort turnover plays the major role in promoting convergence. Differences in mortality at working ages, though quite moderate themselves, have a significant cumulative effect. The projections show that when it is assumed that net migration flows at working ages are converging across European regions, this will not contribute to convergence of population aging. The beta-convergence approach proves useful to examine regional variations in population aging across Europe.

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Kashnitsky I. S., de Beer J., van Wissen L.
GENUS. 2017. Vol. 73. No. 2.
May 21, 2017

Plasticity of central and peripheral sources of noradrenaline in rats during ontogenesis

The morphogenesis of individual organs and the whole organism occurs under the control of intercellular chemical signals mainly during the perinatal period of ontogenesis in rodents. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that the biologically active concentration of noradrenaline (NA) in blood in perinatal ontogenesis of rats is maintained due to humoral interaction between its central and peripheral sources based on their plasticity. As one of the mechanisms of plasticity, we examined changes in the secretory activity (spontaneous and stimulated release of NA) of NA-producing organs under deficiency of its synthesis in the brain. The destruction of NA-ergic neurons was provoked by administration of a hybrid molecular complex–antibodies against dopamine-β-hydroxylase associated with the cytotoxin saporin–into the lateral cerebral ventricles of neonatal rats. We found that 72 h after the inhibition of NA synthesis in the brain, its spontaneous release from hypothalamus increased, which was most likely due to a compensatory increase of NA secretion from surviving neurons and can be considered as one of the mechanisms of neuroplasticity aimed at the maintenance of its physiological concentration in peripheral blood. Noradrenaline secretion from peripheral sources (adrenal glands and the organ of Zuckerkandl) also showed a compensatory increase in this model. Thus, during the critical period of morphogenesis, the brain is integrated into the system of NA-producing organs and participates in their reciprocal humoral regulation as manifested in compensatory enhancement of NA secretion in each of the studied sources of NA under specific inhibition of NA production in the brain. 

… 
Bondarenko N., Dilmukhametova L., Kurina A. et al.
Biochemistry (Moscow). 2017. Vol. 82. No. 3. P. 373-379.
May 21, 2017

Monopolistic competition model: The impact of technological innovation on equilibrium and social optimality

This paper considers a monopolistic competition model with the endogenous choice of technology in the closed economy case. Our aim is to obtain the comparative statics of the equilibrium and socially optimal solutions with respect to the technological innovation parameter that affects costs. The key findings are the following: consumption and investments in productivity both increase with the growth of technological innovation; the behavior of the equilibrium variables depends on the elasticity of demand only; the behavior of the socially optimal variables depends on the elasticity of utility only; finally, the behavior of the equilibrium and socially optimal variables does not depend on the properties of the costs as a function of investments in R&D.

… 
Antoshchenkova I., Bykadorov I.
Automation and Remote Control. 2017. Vol. 78. No. 3. P. 537-556.
May 17, 2017

The evolution of cluster initiatives in Russia: the impacts of policy, life-time, proximity and innovative environment

Purpose – This paper aims at assessing the impacts of the national cluster policy, cluster age, cluster
development benchmarks of neighbouring regions and the cumulative level of regional innovative
capacity on the quantity and quality of cluster initiatives in Russia.
Design/methodology/approach – Hypotheses’ testing was carried out by a series of calculations
comparing the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of cluster initiatives; the number of new
cluster initiatives to the number of neighbouring regions, where cluster initiatives had begun to develop
earlier; and ranks of regions within the Russian regional innovation scoreboard to the quantity and
quality characteristics of cluster initiatives therein.
Findings – The results of the study empirically confirm that the national cluster policy significantly
influenced the emergence and advancement of cluster initiatives in Russia. The proximity to the regions,
having previously launched cluster support programmes, also had an impact on the emergence of new
cluster initiatives. The cluster initiatives’ age had an ambiguous effect on their performance. Finally, the
level of regional innovative capacity was correlated only with the number of cluster initiatives localised
therein.
Practical implications – The findings show that along with the direct effects of the national cluster
policy for the government-supported clusters, there are positive externalities, e.g. the emergence of
new cluster initiatives throughout the country.
Originality/value – The research database of 277 cluster initiatives has been drawn up as a part of the
first national cluster mapping and covers almost a decade of clustering activity in Russia. The study
analyses not only the cluster initiatives supported by the federal government but also those developed
independently.
… 
Foresight. 2017. Vol. 19. No. 2. P. 87-120.
May 15, 2017

Videos

Marie Arsalidou "How the Brain Processes Numbers and Calculations"