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Демография

Как алкоголь влияет на продолжительность жизни

Злоупотребление спиртным вносит немалый вклад в преждевременную смертность в России.

Почему смертность от ВИЧ не снижается

В массовом сознании заражение вирусом иммунодефицита человека все еще считается проблемой маргиналов. Это затрудняет борьбу с болезнью.

Почему на Северном Кавказе сохраняется особая модель брака

Молодежь в Дагестане и Карачаево-Черкесии чтет традиции и строит семью почти так же, как старшие поколения.

«Дети из пробирки»: чего боятся россияне

Экстракорпоральное оплодотворение и суррогатное материнство расцениваются в обществе как рискованные технологии, которые «вторгаются в природу» и могут влиять на институт традиционной семьи.

Публикации

Age-specific net migration patterns in the municipal formations of Russia

This paper analyses the spatial patterns of internal migration in Russia using data on net migration gain/loss in 2200 municipal formations (MFs) in Russia for the 2012–2013 period. These MFs are grouped into age categories that correspond with different life-course stages. We define 16 classes of MFs with similar migration balance patterns for multiple age groups and characterize the most typical classes. The results of our analysis show that age-specific migration patterns are determined by the spatial characteristics of MFs—in particular, a municipality’s localization in the centreperiphery system and the advantages of the geographic location (e.g., resort area, natural resources). We find that a city’s population size and administrative status are also important migration factors. In addition, we reveal differences in inter-regional and intra-regional migration and define their structural characteristics. An analysis of age-specific net migration contributes to our understanding of internal migration factors and allows us to assess the impact of migration on a municipality’s age structure. In large cities and regional centres, migration results in younger populations, while in peripheral areas, it speeds up population ageing. In most of the MFs that we analysed, the migration of youth and adults ‘moves’ in opposite directions. This factor accelerates the impact of migration on the population age structure in areas of destination and origin and significantly influences a municipality’s current and prospective demographic parameters as well as the population’s patterns of settlement and spatial concentration or de-concentration both nationally and regionally.

… 
GeoJournal. 2017.

Assessing data on mortality from external causes: Case study of the Republic of Bashkortostan

The article addresses the poor quality of mortality statistics due to external causes, as figures are understated in Russia and its federal subjects. The actual death rates for homicides, suicides, and alcohol poisonings in the Republic of Bashkortostan have been reviewed based on the suggested models. According to models 1–3, on average, homicide mortality is estimated to be 1.6 times higher for males and 1.4 times higher for females compared to the officially reported data; suicide mortality rates are 1.2 times higher for both genders, while fatal accidental poisonings by alcohol are 1.8 times higher among males and 2.1 times higher among females. Model 4 predicts the gain in homicide mortality to be 3.8 and 3.2 times that for males and females, respectively, and the increase in suicide mortality to be 1.4 times higher for males and 2 times higher for females. Last but not least, mortality from fatal alcohol poisoning is predicted to be 3.0 times and 5.9 times higher than the officially reported rates. The mortality rate from the all so-called external causes is expected to increase by 1.2 times among males and by 1.4 times among females, mainly due to the increase in mortality levels in working-age groups (15–60).

… 
Studies on Russian Economic Development. 2017. Vol. 28. No. 1. P. 97-109.

Biopolitics, Borders, and Refugee Camps: Exercising Sovereign Power Over Nonmembers of the State

This article addresses the relationship between the concepts of national identity and biopolitics by examining a border-transit camp for repatriates, refugees and asylum seekers in Germany. Current studies of detention spaces for migrants have drawn heavily on Agamben’s reflection on the “camp” and “homo-sacer”, where the camp is analyzed as a space in permanent state of exception, in which the government exercises sovereign power over the refugee as the ultimate biopolitical subject. But what groups of people can end up at a camp, and does the government treat all groups in the same way? This article examines the German camp for repatriates, refugees and asylum seekers as a space where the state’s borders are demarcated and controlled through practices of bureaucratic and narrative differentiation between various groups of people. The author uses the concept of detention space to draw a theoretical link between national identity and biopolitics, and demonstrates how the sovereign’s practices of control and differentiation at the camp construct German national identity through defining “nonmembers” of the state. The study draws on ethnographic fieldwork at the German border transit camp Friedland and on a discourse analysis of texts produced at the camp or for the camp.

… 
Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity. 2017. Vol. 45. No. 1. P. 41-60.

Capital Cities: Varieties and Patterns of Development and Relocation

The issue of capital city relocation is a topic of debate for more than forty countries around the world. In this first book to discuss the issue, Vadim Rossman offers an in-depth analysis of the subject, highlighting the global trends and the key factors that motivate different countries to consider such projects, analyzing the outcomes and drawing lessons from recent capital city transfers worldwide for governments and policy-makers.

… 
L.; NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis, 2017.

Childbearing among first- and second generation Russians in Estonia against the background of the sending and host countries

Background: An expanding literature documents the childbearing patterns of migrants and their descendants in contemporary Europe. The existing evidence pertains mainly to the northern, western, and southern regions of the continent, while less is known about the fertility of migrants who have moved between the countries of Eastern Europe.

Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the fertility patterns of first- and second-generation Russians in Estonia, relative to the sending and host populations.

Methods: The study draws on the Estonian and Russian Generations and Gender Surveys. Proportional hazards models are estimated for the transitions to first, second, and third births.

Results: Russian migrants in Estonia exhibit greater similarity to the sending population, with a lower propensity for having a second and third birth than the host population. This pattern extends to the descendants of migrants. However, mixed Estonian-Russian parentage, enrolment in Estonian-language schools, and residence among the host population are associated with the convergence of Russians’ childbearing behaviour with the host-country patterns. The findings support the cultural maintenance and adaptation perspectives; selectivity was found to be less important.

Contribution: The study focuses on a previously under-researched context and underscores the importance of contextual factors in shaping migrants’ fertility patterns. It raises the possibility that, depending on the childbearing trends and levels among the sending and receiving populations, large-scale migration may reduce rather than increase aggregate fertility in the host country. With the advancement of the fertility transition in sending countries, this situation may become more common in Europe in the future.

… 
Puur A., Rahnu L., Abuladze L. et al.
Demographic Research. 2017. Vol. 36. P. 1209-1254.

Countries versus Disciplines: Comparative Analysis of Post-Soviet Transformations in Academic Publications from Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

The objective of this paper is to outline and compare frameworks for studying post-Soviet transformations developed by social scientists from various disciplines in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The objective is realized by means of quantitative content analysis of scholarly articles’ abstracts in ninety-four journals in eight (inter)disciplinary fields that covers the period of 2001-2015. This paper seeks to answer the question whether differences in the studies of the post-Soviet transformations are defined by country discourse or by the field of study. The research results suggest that there is a two-level mechanism, by which the societal context affects academia, in this case, social sciences and humanities. While general directions of scholarly attention are determined by societal differences, representations of post-Soviet transformations are framed through specific disciplinary lenses that combine both international and post-Soviet features.

… 
Tregubova N. D., Fabrykant M., Marchenko A.
Comparative Sociology. 2017. Vol. 16. No. 1. P. 147-177.
26 февраля 2017

Видео

Ольга Зевелева: "Миграционная политика и коллективная идентичность"

Журналы

Книги

Время демографических перемен: избранные статьи

Книга представляет собой сборник избранных статей А.Г. Вишневского, публиковавшихся, в основном, на протяжении последних 10–15 лет и посвященных ключевым вопросам демографии XXI в.

Главное внимание в отобранных для издания статьях сосредоточено на теоретическом осмыслении происходящих в мире фундаментальных демографических перемен и вызываемых ими последствий. Эти последствия имеют универсальный характер и пронизывают все уровни социальной реальности — от семейного до глобального. Важное место в книге занимает российская проблематика, автор стремится осмыслить переживаемые Россией демографические перемены и стоящие перед ней демографические вызовы в контексте универсальных и глобальных демографических перемен и вызовов. Часть статей посвящена истории и современному состоянию отечественной демографической науки.

Потенциальная аудитория книги — исследователи, представляющие широкий круг обществоведческих дисциплин, преподаватели и студенты, политики и журналисты, а также читатели, интересующиеся демографией и смежными науками.

Выход книги приурочен к 80-летию А.Г. Вишневского.

Рецензии:
• Журнал  "Вопросы философии" № 5, 2016
• Журнал "Неприкосновенный запас" №109 (5/2016)

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